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The measurement of lipids: researchers create Atlas of human adipose tissue

About 20 percent of the world’s population is obese. If the increase remains the same, it is estimated that around 60 percent of men and 50 percent of women worldwide will suffer from obesity by 2050. Mike Lange from the Institute for Bioanalytical Chemistry at the University of Leipzig is working on an atlas of white fat tissue, an overview of all lipids in a specific part of the body to record the complex interaction of the biomolecules involved in obesity. This knowledge could improve the therapy and prevention of this widespread disease. He will present the current status of his project at the 7th European Lipidomics Meeting.

In our cells there are four different classes of biomolecules: DNA stores information, proteins perform most of the cellular tasks, sugars provide energy and are important components of connective tissue. In addition, there are lipids that form membranes around cells, separate cell organelles and act as messengers. All biomolecules are subject to strict regulation and are closely networked via signalling pathways. Diseases such as obesity can interfere with this regulation, but with the mass of biomolecules and signalling pathways it is difficult to find the cause. The first step is therefore to analyse and characterise all biomolecules in order to find out which components are important in the signalling pathways.

Analyze lipids, assign them and locate them in the atlas

Lange has taken on this task and created an overview of lipids in a tissue, a kind of atlas of white fat tissue. “Computer-aided analyses have shown that theoretically there can be up to 40,000 different lipid species. It is not known what exactly they are in white fat tissue and in what concentrations they occur. I therefore analyse them in fat tissue, classify them according to their respective class and then place them in the atlas,” said Lange, who is a member of Dr. Maria Fedorova’s research group at the Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry at the BBZ. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry, he separates the individual lipids from each other and determines their mass as well as their molecular properties. Initially, all lipids will be collected and digitally linked in a metabolic network.

Better understanding benefits prevention, prediction and treatment

The data obtained can then be compared with the composition of the fatty tissue of different patients: Which lipids, for example, are more pronounced in patients with obesity? And why does one patient develop secondary diseases such as diabetes, while another does not? “Research has shown that patients with a higher proportion of visceral fatty tissue that forms around organs have a higher risk of developing secondary diseases. So far, however, it has not been understood in detail why this is the case. We want to identify these molecular mechanisms and better understand the interaction of biomolecules,” said Lange. This will enable us to better target pharmacological interventions and derive biomarkers for the better prevention and prediction of diseases.

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End of the stalemate: Cardiologists and neurologists recommend umbrellas to protect against stroke

“We knew that many patients under the age of 60 were particularly at risk from this short-circuit between the right and left atrium if they had suffered a stroke,” says Hans-Christoph Diener, senior professor at the Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen, who was the first author of the new guideline for DGN. “The proof that the interventional closure of the PFO can prevent secondary events in persons at risk, however, has only been successful in the past two years”. After years of uncertainty for neurologists and cardiologists, this guideline formulates clear treatment recommendations for patients with cryptogenic stroke,” states DGK first author Professor Stephan Baldus, Director of the Clinic for Cardiology at the Heart Centre of the University Hospital of Cologne.

The previous DGN PFO guideline on secondary prevention of stroke was published in 2012. The current studies on the interventional closure of an open foramen oval were not yet included. The new guideline closes this gap and is addressed not only to neurologists but also to cardiologists who treat PFO patients who have suffered a cryptogenic stroke between the ages of 16 and 60. In 25 percent of all people, the foramen oval does not close completely after birth, and at the same time the stroke causes a high morbidity. The recommendations are of great practical relevance.

A PFO is one of the risk factors for a stroke in younger people without other causes. These insults, which by definition cannot be assigned a clear other cause, account for about 20 percent of all strokes. Standard treatment for patients after a cryptogenic stroke is the administration of anticoagulant drugs, which can reduce the rate of recurrence.

Medication or intervention? For a long time a clear “yes”.

Studies have repeatedly attempted to seal the passage between the two atria by means of an umbrella-shaped closure (“occluder”) as part of an intervention with a catheter advanced from the groin. However, three older studies (CLOSURE I, PC study, RESPECT) had shown no clear advantage of this stroke prevention method. Four further studies then initiated a turnaround: REDUCE, CLOSE, RESPECT extended follow up and most recently the DEFENSE-PFO study have shown that PFO occlusion can significantly reduce the rate of stroke recurrence. The majority of recurrences were mild, non-disabling strokes. Atrial fibrillation may occur during the intervention, but in most cases it stopped spontaneously.

The evidence from these studies is discussed and evaluated in detail in the new guideline. “It is noteworthy that it reaches the second highest quality level (S2e) of a guideline and was prepared by the participants on a voluntary basis in a very short time. We were therefore able to dispense with external financing,” says Baldus.

Five recommendations

The evaluation of 22 publications and a multi-stage consensus process by the 13-member editorial committee finally led to five recommendations, four of which were adopted unanimously and one of which only abstained once. The most important suggestion is probably recommendation level A and evidence level I. It reads: “In patients between 16 and 60 years of age with a cryptogenic ischaemic stroke (after neurological and cardiological clarification) and open foramen ovale with a moderate or pronounced right-left shunt, an interventional PFO occlusion is to be performed. Ten experts were in favor of this. Three experts were in favor of an attenuated version of this recommendation, according to which such an intervention should be “considered”.

Peri- and postoperative risks include atrial fibrillation, pericardial tamponades and pulmonary embolisms, but these are so rare that they should not stand in the way of the implantation of an occluder, according to another recommendation. In addition, the experts have looked into the ideal design of the occluder. They come to the conclusion that so-called disc occlusions are to be preferred. And they give advice on medication after the operation as well as for patients who reject the operation.

Guideline does not release from meticulous search for causes

“It is a step forward that the benefit of PFO closure in younger patients with an unexplained stroke is now better proven,” says Professor Armin Grau of the German Stroke Society (DSG). “However, it is important that there is always a detailed search for other causes and that an experienced neurologist checks the indication. Not every younger stroke patient with a PFO needs a closure of the foramen ovale,” said the director of the Neurological Clinic at the Park Hospital In Delhi.

“Much also depends on neurologists and cardiologists working well together in this indication,” said Diener. If we do everything right and select the right patients, the PFO closure can reduce the risk of stroke by 75 percent.

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How fast does extreme meat consumption affect biomarkers?

What happens in the body when someone eats red meat every day for weeks? Researchers have now investigated this in a randomized study and found a significant increase in an atherosclerosis marker.

Even after a short period of extreme meat consumption, the first harbingers of atheroclerosis appear to be on the horizon. Researchers led by Dr. Zengeng Wang were able to show in a randomized study that plasma levels of a known atherosclerosis risk factor increase considerably after weeks of consumption of red meat.

We are talking about trimethylamine N-oxide, TMAO for short. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that TMAO promotes the development of atherosclerotic plaques and that an increase in this metabolite is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Only a few days ago, Prof. Ulf Landmesser and Prof. Matthias Endres published a paper in which such an association was shown.

TMAO is an important risk factor

TMAO is produced in the liver from trimetyhlamine (TMA). TMA is formed by intestinal bacteria from carnitine and choline, both of which are abundant in red meat. Red meat is again discredited for damaging the heart’s health.

“The current results suggest that a diet dominated by red meat is associated with an increase in TMAO levels, and could thus promote an increase in the risk of thrombosis,” the study authors explain the possible link.

Red meat makes TMAO rise

For their study, the US scientists had 113 healthy volunteers eat either red or white meat daily for one month or offered them a meatless diet with the same calorie content instead. After each period, a crossover to the other diet followed after a washout phase.

After consumption of red meat, subjects’ TMAO plasma concentrations increased considerably, almost three times higher than in the period when white meat or no meat was eaten (p < 0.0001). The study authors report that in some subjects the levels had even risen tenfold.

The kidney function is also altered.

Even more surprising in their opinion is the finding that meat consumption has also had an effect on kidney function. After consumption of red meat, the fractional excretion of TMAO decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The authors of the study interpret this finding to mean that the kidney seems to be less able to excrete TMAO efficiently at a high consumption of red meat, pointing out that the renal clearance of TMAO had fluctuated strongly between the participants. The TMAO precursors carnitine, ╬│-butyrobetaine and crotonobetaine were excreted more frequently. These correlations also became apparent when other parameters were used instead of creatinine to calculate renal function.

Another observation was that after several weeks of red meat consumption, carnitine was increasingly converted into TMA or TMAO. This was established when 13 persons were given isotope-labelled variants of carnitine and choline and the corresponding labels were measured in TMAO or TMA after the respective diet phases. Strangely enough, choline did not show an increased conversion to TMAO.

Good news: increase is reversible

The study authors conclude from their observations that increased consumption of red meat has led to a systemic increase in TMAO levels in three ways: increased uptake of precursors, increased conversion of carnitine to TMAO/TMA, and decreased excretion of TMAO.

The good news is that the observed changes are reversible. TMAO plasma levels decreased again within four weeks when meat consumption was stopped.

The scientists estimate that an excessive consumption of red meat as in their study (about 2 servings per day) over several years compared to a meatless diet results in a 4.5% relative increase in mortality risk, assuming the association behaves as in a meta-analysis in which any increase in TMAO levels by 10 ┬Ámol/L was associated with a 7.6% increase in mortality (and the TMAO increase after one month is extrapolable to a follow-up of 4.3 years). Compared to a diet based on white meat, a 4.3% increase in mortality risk can be expected.

Whether this is a realistic assessment remains to be clarified, as do the actual long-term consequences of such a diet. However, a randomized long-term study will probably be waiting in vain.

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Students discover genes associated with aggressive form of brain tumors

When Leland Dunwoodie, a biochemistry student, contacted his PI (Principal Investigator) in the spring of 2016 that he wanted to start “some human things” in the spring of 2016, he would not have thought that this would lead to the discovery of 22 genes involved in glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain tumor.

“I definitely didn’t come to Clemson to think about brain cancer research,” Dunwoodie said. “I was working on a project with grapes and other plants. I told Dr. (Alex) Feltus that I wanted to do some human things, and he said, ‘That’s cool – take an organ.’ ”

After consultation with his family – should he study the brain or the heart? – Dunwoodie decided to study the brain and especially brain tumors. An earlier summer internship at the Van Andel Institute had awakened his interest in cancer research.

Dunwoodie’s study, which two years later led to a publication in the journal Oncotarget in January 2018, was the first to describe glioblastoma-specific gene coexpression relationships between a group of 22 specific genes.

Heard in the news as the disease Senator John McCain and Beau Biden, the late son of U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, glioblastoma is very malignant and characterized by its lethality. Patients with glioblastoma have an average survival time of only 14, 6 months after diagnosis.

“Like many other tumors, diseases and complex characteristics, glioblastoma is controlled by a variety of genetic and epigenetic factors,” said Dunwoodie. “If there was a major regulator for these cancers, we would say, ‘We will use the drugs and we will save millions of lives every year,’ but there are more things in glioblastoma than we can identify now. ”

However, the complexity of glioblastoma is suitable for research in Professor Feltus’ Systems Genetics Lab in the Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, where Dunwoodie is a student. As the laboratory’s name suggests, Systems Genetics uses computer and mathematics based approaches to analyze biological systems such as genes and regulatory pathways.

To make this discovery, Dunwoodie first compiled data from two public online databases of genomic information: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).

TCGA downloaded more than 2,000 tumor expression datasets, each detailing how tumor cells differ from normal cells at the genetic level. Five different types of tumors, including those from bladder, ovarian, thyroid, glioma and glioblastoma cancer, were included in the data to provide a well-rounded case study.

More than 2000 data sets, each containing approximately 75,000 genes, were then organized into a gene expression matrix (GEM), a table that quantifies the level of expression of each gene over each sample. For example, one of the genes derived from TCGA, called LAPTM5, encodes a protein involved in the formation of blood cells. In the gene expression matrix, LAPTM5 was examined for each tumor type to determine whether it was overactive (overexpressed) or underactive (underexpressed) in a tumor type, as indicated by a numerical ranking. The same evaluation process was then performed for the 74999 remaining genes across the five tumor types in the TCGA data.

A separate GEM containing 210,000 genes from 204 records in the NCBI database – including normal brain samples, glioblastoma brain samples, and brain samples from patients with Parkinson’s disease – was created independently for comparison. Will Poehlman, a PhD student at the Systems Genetics Lab, helped Dunwoodie prepare these GEMs.

Using Feltus’ novel computer software and former PhD student Stephen Ficklin, now Assistant Professor at Washington State University, Dunwoodie was able to translate the GEMs into two different gene coexpression networks (GCNs), providing insight into how the genes interact with each other.

The software package, known as Knowledge Independent Network Construction (KINC), is new in the sense that it finds expression relationships between genes without the need for researchers to perform prior analysis. This knowledge-independent method reduces the amount of “noise” from laboratory protocols or from natural variations between cells that can prevent genetic interactions from being discovered.

“Through the two GCNs, we found a group of 22 genes expressed in a single module in both the cancer genomatlas network and the NCBI brain network,” said Dunwoodie. “Only about 70 genes overlapped between the two networks, and 22 of them were in the same module – the same group of coexpressed genes. The overlap was really easy to see.”

While it is tempting to think that the genes, many of which function in the immune system feed on each other to influence glioblastoma, Dunwoodie says that this is not exactly the case.

“It’s hard to say they’re working together because they’re correlations. So if person A runs eight miles on the same day that person B runs eight miles, that doesn’t necessarily mean they run together.” Dunwoodie said. “These genes are more likely to be regulated in the same way, and there are probably several things that regulate them that we cannot currently identify.”

In addition, these 22 genes were found to have much higher co-expression in glioblastoma compared to glioblastoma and non-cancerous samples, suggesting a disease-specific regulatory mechanism. The same finding was found when comparing glioblastoma with less severe glioma, a less aggressive brain tumor, indicating glioblastoma-specific activity of the 22 genes. The other remarkable result of the study showed that the 22 genes are more associated with mesenchymal glioblastoma, a distinct subtype of cancer, and that when the genes are strongly expressed, they reduce survival time for patients in the mesenchymal group.

As in research, where answering a question leads to a wealth of new questions, the team’s study is only a small step towards understanding glioblastoma pathogenesis.

“It would be nice to find out what the 22 genes specifically do,” Dunwoodie said. “Are they expressed in the surrounding immune cells? Are they a cause of cancer or are they an effect of cancer? Does cancer spread its expression? Why these genes are expressed there together and what they do are questions that have been answered.”

Dunwoodie – who plans to attend a medical school to become a Cancer Doctor Informatist – says the tools and methods he learned in the Systems Genetics Lab will stay with him long in his career.

“Cancer research is interesting because there are so many amazing people who do so many amazing things – but that’s just a drop in the ocean,” Dunwoodie said. “For me, the true purpose is that patients are cured. The publication of a paper is great, but no one was cured immediately, and that’s the ultimate goal.”

Source: The News Stand

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Choice aids treatment kidney failure

Choosing from different treatments for kidney failure is a process. There are several decision aids that can help. The experiences of others can also be helpful.

Would you like to know what the different kidney failure treatments involve? Or what the consequences of the kidney failure treatments are for your body and your daily life? Then read detailed information.

Choice help: consultation card

A consultation card is a decision aid for patients and urology doctors. There are 2 consultation cards for people who have to deal with kidney failure. 1 to compare and discuss the different renal function replacement treatments. And 1 to discuss the choice between renal function replacement treatment or conservative treatment.

  • The consultation cards show all possible treatment options.
  • You use the consultation card together with your urology doctor. Your urology doctor will indicate which options are medically possible. You can then compare these treatment options together.
  • For each treatment, the most common questions and answers are listed in a schedule. The answers are based on medical guidelines, other scientific literature and expert experience.

Experiences of others: Park Hospital

On Park Hospital you will find videos of people who have already made a choice of treatments for kidney failure. In short fragments they tell about their experience. How they feel about it, and what advantages and disadvantages they experience. For example in the field of work and school, sleep, relationships and holidays.

Then discuss your wishes, doubts and ideas with your care providers.

Park Hospital give you a more complete picture of what a treatment can mean for you.

Compare dialysis centers: Comparison help

Are you considering dialysis? Then use the Comparison Tool Dialysis Centers to see which dialysis centers are near you and what types of dialysis they offer. You can also compare facilities such as opening hours on Sundays, training options and single rooms for night dialysis.

Selection scheme for renal function replacement treatments

The Kidney Function Replacement Treatments Selection Chart helps compare treatments that take over kidney function. It involves transplantation and various forms of dialysis. The selection scheme contains the characteristics of these treatments. For example, you can compare the physical effects of treatments. Or the effect of the different treatments on your freedom of movement.

When reading this diagram, it is good to think of the following:

  • Your urologist will discuss with you which treatments are possible.
  • The schedule only shows the broad outlines. In practice, something may turn out differently from what is stated in the schedule, for example due to your personal circumstances.
  • How you experience a treatment also depends on what you expect from it. Also plays a role how you felt in the period before. Suppose that someone first dialyses, and then gets a kidney transplant. This person will probably experience a greater improvement in the period after the transplant than someone who receives a transplant and did not dialysis before that.
  • Some of the complaints in this schedule are unclear whether they are caused by kidney damage, treatment, or even a completely different condition.
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Osteoarthritis: natural treatments to relieve pain

This disease, which is characterized by the degradation of the cartilage around the joints, causes nearly ten million Indian people to suffer. While it is particularly prevalent among the elderly, it does not spare the youngest. To relieve arthrosic pain, what are “natural” methods worth?

In India, nearly half of the 10 million people with osteoarthritis are under 60 years of age. It is the most common joint disease and the leading cause of disability after 40 years of age, because pain due to inflammation of the joint areas leads to a loss of mobility over time. Arthritis cannot be cured, but to slow its progression and limit symptoms, nine out of ten people with arthritis say they are looking for solutions to relieve pain and many turn to alternative medicines to restrict the use of medications (painkillers, anti-inflammatories, corticosteroids). “The Joint pain doctor is often only consulted in second line,” confirms Eric Senbel, who points out that “the “small arthrosics”, those who suffer from early arthrosis, prefer food supplements to drugs”.

Food supplements

“The goal of reducing anti-inflammatory drugs is laudable and some dietary supplements such as chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine or copper granules can be useful when used over the long term,” says Eric Senbel. As a scientist, the rheumatologist only gives his opinion on products “whose benefits are proven” and provided, of course, “that they are compatible with the patient’s health or treatment”. However, “even if the benefits are modest”, the joint specialist emphasizes the effectiveness of glucosamine or chondroitin, “evaluated on the basis of studies and which have anti-inflammatory properties comparable to those of drugs”. He also points out “a significant placebo effect”.

Dr. Senbel also warns his patients against the temptation to indiscriminately pick up food supplements from the pharmacist’s “food supplements” section, as the products are numerous and sometimes “crazy”: “You can find everything. This ranges from krill oil (cold sea plankton made up of small crustaceans, NDLR) to shark cartilage. As a joint pain doctor and scientist, I can only advise moderation. In addition to being useless, these products are often expensive,” he warns.

Herbal medicine

Some plants, such as blackcurrant, harpagophytum, also called devil’s claw, or turmeric, are known for their anti-inflammatory properties. “They have the advantage of reducing the use of drugs that can cause side effects,” explains Elodie Poudroux, who works in Toulouse as a natural health and Chinese energy medicine practitioner. During the first consultation, this professional, who receives “many patients suffering from pain in the joints, hip, shoulder, knee, back…”, makes a complete check-up: “I ask them about the different health problems they may experience, I look for imbalances in the body, I question them about their lifestyle, their diet”, she explains. She then prescribes complexes of several plants in the form of supplements (capsules), but also advises them “to stop dairy products, to limit red, fatty meats, such as sausages, because they produce many toxins that accumulate in the joints”

Apart from plants with anti-inflammatory properties, Elodie Poudroux recommends others, such as horsetail, rich in silicon, or bamboo, both “beneficial for supporting tissues, bones and cartilage through their remineralizing and pain-relieving effect”. Because of the minerals it contains, nettle is also on the list of plants of interest “to maintain joint vitality”, according to the herbalist. “Lithothamnium, an antacid alga, provides calcium and vegetable magnesium,” she adds, stressing the importance of “checking that there are no interactions between plants and treatment for other diseases. Finally, it recommends plant buds (gemmotherapy), such as those of blackcurrant for muscle health, pine for joint cartilage, ash or warty birch, presented in the form of drops to be distributed throughout the day. By containing, at the embryonic stage, all the parts of the plant (from the top to the roots), the bud combines the various properties of the latter.

Aromatherapy

Used in massages, certain essential oils, such as those of wintergreen, lemon eucalyptus and black spruce, by their “analgesic (painkiller) and anti-inflammatory action”, help to reduce pain, says Elodie Poudroux, who specifies that “it is especially necessary to supplement with plants that will drain the body, joints, to promote the elimination of toxins”.

Homeopathy

Although a 1993 study showed that Rhus toxicodendron, a plant used in homeopathy, performed better than a placebo, opinions are divided on this alternative medicine, as its efficacy is not proven and seems to vary widely among patients. Homeopathy being safe, why not try it? However, it should be noted that the treatments are specific depending on whether you have osteoarthritis in the thumb, knee, heel, etc.

While all these “natural” solutions can reduce pain, they will unfortunately not cure osteoarthritis, which will inexorably continue to evolve. Cortisone infiltration remains a really effective way to reduce pain when it becomes too difficult to tolerate. Hyaluronic acid injections, mainly used for knee osteoarthritis, also provide relief and may delay joint surgery (prosthesis) when cartilage and bone are more affected. Unfortunately, the injection of hyaluronic acid is no longer reimbursed by the Social Security since June 1, 2017, a situation that joint pain doctors and patients deplore.

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The 12 best tips for abdominal complaints

Anyone who has ever had a stomach pain knows that pulling in the stomach is extremely unpleasant. But the treatment of abdominal pain is not always easy because there are many different causes behind the pain: Starting with stress and hectic rush over a gastrointestinal infection up to spinal problems or an allergy. The reasons for abdominal discomfort can be many and varied.

Abdominal discomfort is a symptom

If you have stomach problems, you should always bear in mind that this is not a disease, but a symptom of a disease. The cause of the symptoms is often harmless and the abdominal pain can be controlled with a few simple tricks.

In order to relieve your abdominal pain, we have put together a varied programme for you, with which you can relieve stomach cramps and relieve your pain. The tips can be used individually or in combination. With each tip you should decide according to your own feeling whether the measure seems pleasant to you or not.

If your abdominal pain persists for a longer period of time and cannot be alleviated with household remedies, you should consult a stomach pain doctor so that he can clarify the exact cause of your symptoms.

Tip 1: Hot-water bottle

In the case of abdominal discomfort, a hot water bottle can relieve the pain and provide relaxation. The warm water in the hot water bottle inhibits the pain receptors and the pain is therefore no longer perceived as so strong.

In addition, the heat promotes blood circulation in the tissue. Through the better blood circulation, the muscles can relax.

As an alternative to a hot-water bottle, you can also use a cherry pit cushion, which can be heated in the oven or microwave.

Tip 2: Belly wrap

In addition to a hot-water bottle or a cherry pit cushion, a warm compress can also help to alleviate abdominal discomfort.

For a conventional belly compress you should have three different towels at hand: A linen sheet is placed directly on the stomach, dunked in hot water and then wrung out vigorously. A cotton cloth follows as an intermediate layer, and a woolen cloth closes the belly compress on the very outside. The wrap should last at least 30 minutes.

Tip 3: Stomach soothing tea

There are various types of tea, the ingredients of which are said to have a stomach-soothing effect. These include fennel tea, chamomile tea and sage tea. Chamomile calms the stomach mucous membrane, fennel has an antispasmodic effect and sage has an antibacterial effect. In addition, peppermint tea and melissa tea are also recommended for stomach complaints. Alternatively, you can also use a special stomach tea from a drugstore or pharmacy.

Tip 4: Play sports

Just like a hot-water bottle, sporting activity also leads to improved blood circulation in the muscles. This relieves cramps and relaxes the muscles.

Gentle forms of movement such as yoga, Pilates or gymnastics are particularly suitable for abdominal pain. Moderate jogging or swimming are also recommended.

Tip 5: Avoid alcohol, cigarettes and coffee

The consumption of coffee, cigarettes or alcohol can further aggravate existing stomach problems, as their consumption irritates the stomach. You should therefore avoid these substances if you have acute stomach problems.

The stomach can also be irritated by taking certain painkillers. Therefore you should consult your gastroenterology doctor about possible side effects before taking painkillers.

Tip 6: The right food

If you have problems with your stomach, you should pay particular attention to your diet to prevent unnecessary strain on the gastrointestinal tract. It is especially important to avoid heavy and fatty foods.

On the other hand, easily digestible foods that do not strain the digestion are recommended. These include rusks, potatoes, rice, carrots, bananas, apples and pears as well as veal, poultry or trout.

Tip 7: Hot bath

A hot full bath has an analgesic and relaxing effect on the cramped abdominal muscles. Lavender and pungent yarrow are particularly suitable as bath additives.

Bath with lavender: Put a handful of lavender in a pot, add two liters of water and boil the water. Let it steep for a quarter of an hour and then add the lavender essence to the bath water.

Tip 8: Heel Seat (Exercise)

If you have stomach problems, special gymnastics exercises can also help to relieve the pain: Sit on your heels and stretch both arms over your head. The palms of your hands should touch. Then tighten your buttocks and pull your upper body up with your arms. Keep sitting on your heels. Keep the tension upright for about one minute.

Tip 9: Switch off

It is not uncommon for abdominal complaints to be caused by a stressful or hectic everyday life. If you suffer from abdominal discomfort, you should therefore try to avoid stress and consciously switch off once: Take a break, rest and only do the things you really want to do.

Also make sure you eat regularly, calmly and slowly. Even hastily gobbling up meals can lead to abdominal discomfort.

Tip 10: abdominal massage

In the case of acute abdominal discomfort, a gentle massage of the abdomen can help to alleviate the symptoms. Thyme, Johanniskern or lavender oil is particularly suitable for this massage.

The abdominal massage involves circular movements around the navel with the flat of the hand. It is important to always perform the movements clockwise.

Attention: You should not perform the massage if you find it unpleasant.

Tip 11: The rolled leaf (exercise)

This exercise can also help to alleviate your abdominal discomfort. The starting point again is the heel seat: bend your upper body forward and place your forehead on the floor. Now stretch your arms forward and stay in this position until you are completely relaxed.

Tip 12: Camomile compress

A camomile compress is a good alternative to a belly compress. Put three tablespoons of camomile flowers in a bowl and pour a liter of boiling water over it. Allow to stand for ten minutes and then drain the water. Dip a cotton cloth into the warm camomile water, wring it out and place it on the aching stomach at an appropriate temperature.